Saturday, May 24, 2008

Chauhan rulers of Ajmer

  • Ajay Pal - founded the city Ajaymeru which came to be called as Ajmer in the modern times.
  • Prithviraja I
  • Jagdeva
  • Vigraharaja IV
  • Apara Gangeya
  • Prithviraja II
  • Someshwara
  • Prithviraj III
  • Tej Singh Chauhan

Chauhan's habitat

The Rajput Chauhans are also populated around Thakurdwara (Moradabad),Distt. Bijnor U.P, Distt. Aligarh and Distt. Baghpat, Baraut, Muzzafarnagar & Meerut(there are many villages of chauhan's in Meerut). The mostly 'Chauhans', 'Chaudharys', Tomars', 'Vats' and 'Sisodia', 'Kachwaha', 'Gahlaut', clan is in popularity in the area. Chauhans are also from Punjab DASUYA Distt Hosiarpur. In Rajputs the marriages are held on the bases of the sub-cast systems. But most of the Chauhan's found in around Delhi to Haridwar arrange their marriages according to the Gautra system.

Chauhans Rajputs of Chaurasi are populated near Khair-Chandaus area of Aligarh district of Uttar Pradesh. They call themselves Chauhans of Chaurasi (gautra- batchhas) having origin in Neemarana Rajasthan and Gaddi(seat) Delhi. Some villages from these Chauhans are also in District Bulandshahr( Davkaura, Agauta, Surkhuru, Bhainsroli are some prominent villages)

The Chauhan Rajputs having a dominant role in Haridwar district of Uttrakhand. Haridwar is also known as ChauhanPuri in local Area.All Chauhans are among of 52 villages near Rajaji National Park.Kuldevi of Chauhan Rajputs is Maa Shakumhra Devi in District Sahranpur.In month of Bhadrpad Chauhans go to worship Gogaji (JAHAR VEER GOGA PEER, ANCIENT GREAT WARRIOR RULER OF CHAUHAN DYNSATY GOGAJI DEV CHAUHAN) in Rajasthan.Chauhans of haridwar having big role in Land and farming in District.Mostly Chauhans of Haridwar having gotras Vats,Gahadwal and Budhwal, Kachwaha, Gahlaut, Bhadauriya, Kashyap and solanki gotra etc and their marriage system is on the basis of the gautra.

Origin and History of Chauhans

an Arya clan in India. The Chauhan gotra is found among the Rajputs. The Chauhan Rajputs come from the region around the lakes of Sambhar and Pushkar in Rajasthan, near Amber and present-day Jaipur. Other seats of Chauhans are Mainpuri & Pratapner in Uttar Pradesh and Neemrana in Alwar District of Rajasthan.

There is a great village of the Chauhan clan by the name of Amin near Thanesar in Haryana. These Chauhans belong to the Ror community and they have provided many Volleyball players to the Indian national team. The average height of the ROR Chauhans of Amin is well over six feet. Amin is also supposed to be the village where the Pandavas arrayed their forces before the last battle in the war of Mahabharat.

According to the Rajput bards, the Chauhan is one of the four Agnikula or 'fire sprung' clans who were created by the gods in the anali kund or 'fountain of fire' on Mount Abu to fight against the Asuras or demons. Chauhan is also one of the 36 (royal) ruling races of the Rajputs.

Chauhan dynasty flourished from the 8th to 12th centuries. It was one of the four main Rajput dynasties (Agnivanshis) of that era, the others being Pratiharas, Paramaras and Chalukyas.

Chauhan dynasties established themselves in several places in Northern India and in the state of Gujarat in Western India. Inscriptions also associate them with Sambhar, the salt lake area in the Dhundhar region. Sakhambari branch remained near lake Sambhar and married into the ruling Gurjara-Pratihara, who then ruled an empire in Northern India.

The Chauhans later asserted their independence from the Pratiharas, and in the early eleventh century, the Sakhambari king Ajaya-Raja founded the city of Ajayameru (Ajmer) in the southern part of their kingdom, and in the mid twelfth century, his successor Vigraharaja enlarged the state, captured Dhilika (the ancient name of Delhi) from the Tomaras and annexed some of their territory along the Yamuna River, including Haryana and Delhi.

In 12th century the Chauhans dominated Delhi, Ajmer, Ranthambhor. They were also prominent at Godwar in the southwest of Rajputana, and at Hadoti (Bundi and Kota) in the east. Chauhan politics were largely campaigns against the Chalukyas and the invading Muslim hordes.

The Chauhan kingdom became the leading state and a powerful kingdom in Northern India under King Prithviraj III (1165-1192), also known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai Pithora. Prithviraj III has become famous in folk tales and historical literature as the Chauhan king of Delhi who resisted the attack by Muslim ruler Mohammed of Ghor at the first Battle of Tarain (1191). Armies from other Rajput kingdoms, including Mewar, assisted him. The Chauhan kingdom collapsed after Prithviraj was defeated by Mohammed of Ghor in 1192 at the Second Battle of Tarain.

Prithviraj's defeat and capture at Tarain ushered in Muslim rule in North India by the Delhi Sultanate. The Chauhans remained in Ajmer as feudatories of Muhammad of Ghor and his successors, the Sultans of Delhi, until 1365, when Ajmer was captured by the rulers of Mewar.

Son of Prithviraj III Chandrapal Dev came and established the state of Bhadawar and from there a new Rajput clan evolved that was called Bhadurias.

A branch of the Chauhans, led by Govinda, the grandson of Pritviraj III, established themselves as rulers of Ranthambore from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries, until Ranthambore was captured by Rana Kumbha of Mewar.

The Hadas,great dynasty of the Chauhans, moved into the Hadoti region in the twelfth century, capturing Bundi in 1241 and ruled there until the twentieth century. One sept of these Hada Rajputs won Kota and ruled their till the merger of state in independent India.

Chauhans of the Deora branch established the state of Sirohi in southern Rajasthan, and ruled there from the fifteenth century until Indian Independence.

In western India Chauhans are found at Devgadh Baria, founded by Dungarsinhji, a member of the Khichi Chauhan clan about 700 years ago.

Rajkumar (Bhadaiyan State of Awadh, UP) and Bachgoti (Diyara State of Awadh, UP) are two other branches of Chauhans (both are primarily in Uttar Pradesh). Dhauhan's are also found in Khurja Dasheri and Arnia.

The last Chauhan king, Raja Tej Singh, ruled in Mainpuri, a district in Uttar Pradesh of India.

Solanki Rajput

There are some lost connections in solnki rajputs (agnivanshi) . all what i got is :

The Solanki are from Chalukya, an ancient Indian dynasty are a Hindu clan who ruled parts of western and central India between the 10th and 13th centuries AD. The Solanki are a branch of the Chalukya dynasty of whose oldest known area of residence was in present-day Karnataka.[1] The Solanki clan-name is found within the Gurjar and Rajput communities.

In Gujarat, Anhilwara (modern Siddhpur Patan) served as their capital. Gujarat was a major center of Indian Ocean trade, and Anhilwara was one of the largest cities in India, with population estimated at 100,000 in the year 1000. The Solankis were patrons of the great seaside temple of Shiva at Somnath Patan in Kathiawar; Bhima Dev helped rebuild the temple after it was sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1026. His son Karandev conquered the Bhil king Ashapall or Ashaval, and after his victory established a city named Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati River, at the site of modern Ahmedabad.


Modern Paramara Personalities

The famous Jain temples at Dilware on Mount Abu in Rajasthan were built by two Paramara brothers who happened to be ministers.

Veer Vikramaditya, Raja Bhoja, Veer Babu Kunwar, Dr Yashwant Pawar, Shri Sharadchandra Rao Pawar, etc., have all made invaluable contributions to the Indian politics.

Late Shreemant.Maloji Raje Naik Nimbalkar was the first water resource minister in Maharashtra Government.Now his grandson Shreemant.Ramraje Pratapsinha Naik Nimbalkar is the Water Resource Minister in Maharashtra Government. He is MLA from Phaltan since 1994.

Lalita Pawar was one of the most significant Indian film actresses of her time.

Thakur Sher Singh Parmar – aka Swami Apratimanandji, was a famous Hindi literary figure.

Paramara Dynasty

Paramara kings of Malwa

  • Upendra (c. 800 – c. 818)
  • Vairisimha I (c. 818 – c. 843)
  • Siyaka I (c. 843 – c. 893)
  • Vakpati (c. 893 – c. 918)
  • Vairisimha II (c. 918 – c. 948)
  • Siyaka II (c. 948 – c. 974)
  • Vakpatiraja (c. 974 – c. 995)
  • Sindhuraja (c. 995 – c. 1010)
  • Bhoj or Bhoja I (c. 1010 – c. 1055), author of Samarangana-sutradhara
  • Jayasimha I (c. 1055 – c. 1060)
  • Udayaditya (c. 1060 – c. 1087)
  • Lakshmanadeva (c. 1087 – c. 1097)
  • Naravarman (c. 1097 – c. 1134)
  • Yasovarman (c. 1134 – c. 1142)
  • Jayavarman I (c. 1142 – c. 1160)
  • Vindhyavarman (c. 1160 – c. 1193)
  • Subhatavarman (c. 1193 – c. 1210)
  • Arjunavarman I (c. 1210 – c. 1218)
  • Devapala (c. 1218 – c. 1239)
  • Jaitugideva (c. 1239 – c. 1256)
  • Jayavarman II (c. 1256 – c. 1269)
  • Jayasimha II (c. 1269 – c. 1274)
  • Arjunavarman II (c. 1274 – c. 1283)
  • Bhoj or Bhoja II (c. 1283 – ?) who ruled from about 1010 to 1060, was a great polymath and philosopher king of medieval India. His extensive writings cover philosophy, poetry, medicine, veterinary science, phonetics, yoga and archery. Under his rule, Malwa became an intellectual centre of India. Bhoj also founded the city of Bhopal to secure the eastern part of his kingdom. The Bhoja Airport at Bhopal is named after King Bhoja.
  • Mahlakadeva (c. ? – c. 1305)
  • Sanjeev Singh Parmar (c. 1305 - 1327)
The royal family of Bakhatgarh (a prominent parmar clan of Malwa, and perhaps the oldest) is presently headed by Thakur Saheb Bhagwat Singhji Panwar. The Pawars of Bakhatgarh are from the Mahipawat clan of Paramara Rajputs. They are the descendants of King Bhoja. The Bakhatgarh was founded in 1799 till 1948 when it was merged with the Indian Union. A number of developmental projects were undertaken during the reign of the last ruler Shriman Thakur Saheb Rai Singhji Panwar such as building of hospitals, boys and girls school, Libraries in Bakhatgarh. The palace and other administrative buildings of Bakhatgarh were built during his tenure.
The royal family of Phaltan, located in present-day Maharashtra, also trace their descent from the Paramara dynasty. The family, which settled in Maharashtra in 12th century, is probably the oldest dynasty in Maharashtra. The current surname of the members of this family is Naik Nimbalkar. It is not generally known except to some historians that this family was originally part of the Paramara dynasty. The Naik Nimbalkar family was very intimately related to Chatrapati Shivaji Bhosale, as both the maternal and paternal grandmothers of the latter were from this family; his daughter was also married to a Naik Nimbalkar.
One branch of the Royal Puars family, by descent Rajputs of the Puar clan, adopted many generations back, in 12th century, the family name of Dalvi. Who at present are Hindu Rajput-Marathas, native to Lakhmapur (or old Lakshmipur) and nearby area,( had Ahiwantwadi Fort) near Wani-Dindori, Nasik and have the social honor of being “Deshmukh”. The name Dalvi means the brave king / chief who rules the people and fights wars. The Dalvis of Lakhmapur held many important positions as regional war-lords and Chiefs of private armies. The origin reference about Naik-Nimbalkar of Phaltan state and Dalvi- Deshmukh of Nasik is available in many british records and Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 20, p. 101. A rebellious member of the Povar or Dalvi (M. H. E. Goldsmith's Report on the Peint State (1839) Bom. Gov. Sel. XXVI (New Series), 108.) family of Peint then Part of Baglana, was sent to Delhi by order of Aurangzeb and sentenced to death, for revolt, but spared life after he embraced Islam. During the Maratha supremacy the Peint estates were for a long period placed under attachment by the Peshwas. In reward for services rendered in 1818, the family were reinstated in their former position by the British government.

Location and Professions of Parmar

Most people with the surname Parmar or its post-Ujjain Pawar variations have a high social standing in terms of being Rajputs. There is, though, a taboo of "low caste" for some Paramaras, especially in Gujarat and Pakistan. This may be traced to the defeat and destruction of the Paramara empire by the Gujarati kings, who are likely to have subjugated the defeated Paramaras into menial labor. Many Paramaras in these regions do not know that they are Rajputs, who are quite powerful socially. Upon the restoration of the Paramara clan during the Maratha empire, the Paramara clan ruled most of northern India and also Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan. This historical geographical diversity may have led to the many variations of the Paramara name. The Paramara Rajputs hold the distinction of being the last Rajput rulers of India, in addition to being one of the original ones.

Economically, Paramaras in the business sector are quite well off financially, while those in agricultural sector are able to make ends meet. But the Paramaras inhabiting the vast tribal belt stretching across Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat find themselves amongst the economically most marginalized sections of contemporary Indian society.

Over the centuries, the Rajputs and their branch clans have developed and refined a system of honorifics specifically built for quick identification of familial position. One of three titles is appended to a male's name in order to show which male ancestors are alive. The title of "Bhanwar" indicates that the speaker's grandfather is still alive. "Kanwar" indicates that the man's father is still alive. Finally, "Thakur" indicates that the speaker's father and grandfather are dead. This allows listeners to assess the level of familial responsibility held by the speaker without having to ask intrusive questions. Rajput families are modeled on a patriarchal system wherein power and responsibility flow from the top to the bottom. The eldest surviving male of the eldest surviving generation holds the most power.

Women in Rajasthan and Haryana as a rule are not allowed to step outside the house to work. In Punjab and Maharashtra, Paramara women work shoulder to shoulder in various walks of life, including agriculture. In such a system, women traditionally remain at home to take charge of household duties, while men are typically employed outside the home. Women typically remain within the walls of the home and remain veiled in the presence of elders and strangers.

Men in Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh,Uttarakhand, Bihar and Orissa generally enter careers in uniformed services, such as the military, police and paramilitary forces. Those in Gujarat often enter business professions, while those in Rajasthan and Sindh take government and police jobs, though most are agrarian. The Paramara in Haryana are fundamentally an agrarian community. Maharashtrian and Sindhi Paramaras often choose professions in agriculture or government services, with a particular tendency not to venture out of their home state. This may be because Marathi and Sindhi Paramaras (and, to a certain extent, the Punjabi Paramaras) have adopted the language and culture of their adopted regions, unlike the Hindi- or Urdu-speaking Paramaras. The Paramaras of the business professions dominate the contemporary business scene in the western Maharashtra, especially in the Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg and Sholapur districts.

Traditionally, Paramaras pay visit once a year to Dhar, to invoke the blessings of their "Kul Devi", the goddess KALIKA. Depending on the region they live in, Parmars may also be Muslim, Sikh, and Christian

Parmar Name Meaning and Origin

Indian (Rajasthan and neighboring states): Hindu (Rajput) name meaning ‘one that strikes the enemy’, from Sanskrit para ‘alien’, ‘enemy’ + mara ‘strike’, ‘kill’. The Parmars ruled in Malwa, which is now part of Madhya Pradesh. They consider themselves one of the Agnikulas or ‘Fire Tribes'

There are three schools of thought about the origin of the Paramara clan.The most widely accepted school of thought is that the Paramaras – along with the Chauhans, the Pratiharas (Parihars) and the Solankis (Chalukyas) – were one of the four Agni kula ("fire-born") clans of the Rajputs. In a second school of thought, the Paramara clan is said to have been a tribe of central India that rose to political prominence as the feudatory of the Rashtrakutas. In a third school of thought, the Paramara clan is said to have originally been an inseparable part of the Rashtrakutas, which later branched out from the Rashtrakutas (Rathore)and declared themselves to be a distinct Rajput clan.

Whatever the origin, the Paramaras established themselves as the rulers of Malwa in central India in the ninth century, ruling from their capital at Dhar. In this situation, the Paramaras enjoyed great political power and clout in ancient India. The Paramaras ruled until 1305, when Malwa was conquered by Ala ud din Khilji, the Khilji Sultan of Delhi. It was during these medieval times that their political power and clout started diminishing.

Political power was greatly reduced further still during the consolidation of the British Empire in pre-independence India, with the royals of this clan cooperating with the British conquerors. After India gained independence from Britain in 1947, the Paramara royalty acceded their political powers to the central Indian government in New Delhi. In lieu of these surrendered powers, the Paramara royals received generous financial grants, called the "Privy Purse", from the central government, which helped them to maintain a lavish style of living, as well as maintaining the general upkeep of royal palaces, forts and other architectural marvels. This Privy Purse was later abolished by the central government, under the direction of Indira Gandhi. The Paramara royalty became increasingly complacent and did not adjust to the new political mechanisms of the emerging democracy, although the traditional support of ordinary Rajputs was maintained.[citation needed]

Both royal and ordinary Paramaras eventually fell behind other castes in economic development. By the mid-1980s, an economic, developmental and political gulf had emerged between them and other castes, and so Paramaras began focusing on careers in government. However, the liberalization of the Indian economy in the 1990s saw less government involvement in economic affairs. Merchant, intellectual and scheduled castes continued to thrive by moving into entrepreneurship, but not so the martial caste of the Rajputs. While some few have managed to gain in-roads into the contemporary political system, most Paramaras in general hold very little political power or clout.

Paramara (Agnivanshi Rajputs)

(also known as Parmara and Parmar) is the name of a prominent Arya clan of medieval India, which ruled the Dhar and Ujjaini kingdoms from the 9th century to the 14th century. Modern-day Paramara descendants are located throughout northern, western and central India. Paramaras are also spread throughout the nations of the former British Empire, particularly Canada and the United Kingdom, as well as in the USA and in Sindh, Pakistan, where they constitute 40% of the population of the Dadu district; here they are called Panhwars.

The Ponwar clan of the Marathas, who ruled the states of Dewas, Dhar, Rajgarh in Malwa and Chhatarpur in Bundelkhand from the 18th century to the mid-20th century, claim the same descent as the Paramaras. Here they are also known by the names Punwar, Panwar, Puar, Panhwar and Pawar. Paramara are Agnivanshi Rajputs.

Friday, May 23, 2008

The Agnikunda legend

The Agnikunda legend gives an account of the origin of the Agnivanshi Kshattriyas. In fact, it attempts to explain the origin of some of the Rajputs. There are several versions of the legend.

The Bhavishya Purana version of the legend begins with the puranic legend wherein Parashurama, an avatara of Vishnu, exterminated the traditional kshatriyas of the land. Later, the legend says, sage Vasishta performed a great Yajna or fire-sacrifice, to seek from the gods a provision for the defense of righteousness on earth. In answer to his prayer, a youth arose from the Agnikunda or fire-altar -- the first Agnivanshi Rajput. According to different versions of the legend, one or three or four of the Rajput clans originated from the Agnikunda, including the Naru Rajputs (Naru means Fire),[citation needed] Pratiharas (Pariharas), Chauhans (Chahamanas), Solankis, and Paramaras (Parmars)(Rahevar)(Rever).

This legend is explained up to some extent if one tries to look into Bhavishya Purana